Absolute deprivation – is the lack of opportunities or capacities for individuals, households or social groups to access certain resources, institutions or to become involved in the basic processes of their society.
Absolute poverty – represents the level of income or spending of families and individuals below the defined minimum of living requirements, such as food, clothes, footwear, housing, heating, etc. The basic living requirements are comprised of specified amounts and structures of consumption for these requirements. For more on absolute poverty see http://socijalnoukljucivanje.gov.rs/en/social-inclusion-in-rs/data/absolute-poverty/
Acquis communautaire (EU acquis) refers to the legislative heritage of the European Union (EU). The EU acquis represents the set of all rules and regulations adopted by the EU, which are in force at a given moment. The EU acquis determines the field of operation of the EU, its competences, institutional structure, relations between the EU, Member States and their citizens, relations between Member States, relations between the EU and third countries and international organisations, as well as all other issues relevant for the realisation of objectives for which the EU was founded. Source: EU Glossary, the Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Serbia
Active population – is the economically active population, either employed or seeking employment on the labour market. Itrepresents the supply of labour. More precisely, the population which is economically active (employed) or seeking employment on the labour market (unemployed).
Activity Rate represents the percentage of the active population (employed and unemployed) in the total working-age population.
Consumption Unit represents the consumption of a household member, with calculated differences for the consumption levels of adults and children, and the ascribed joint consumption of the household.
Country-specific Indicators represent an instrument used to analyse the deprivation of social groups in country-specific conditions.
Deinstitutionalisation is the process of systematic transition from the system of residential and institutional care to the system of care provided in the family environment, using community support services. The main purpose of deinstitutionalisation is the implementation of systemic changes, which should enable the full integration of social protection users into all spheres of life in the community. Source: http://www.zavodsz.gov.rs/sr/podru%C4%8Dje-delovanja/unapre%C4%91enje-mera-socijalne-za%C5%A1tite/deinstitucionalizacija/
Dimensions of Exclusion represent specific forms of exclusion, i.e. areas wherefrom individuals and groups are excluded, such as income distribution, financial markets, labour markets, goods and services markets, the education system, healthcare and social security, social networks, local or broader social communities, culture, etc.
Discrimination represents the unequal treatment of individuals or social groups solely based on their affiliation to a certain category defined using any socio-demographic feature (race, sex, age, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, etc.).
Economic Exclusion represents exclusion from the labour market, in the form of unemployment or inactivity, or exclusion from the division of economic resources, in the form of poverty.
Economic Inequalities represent inequalities of income or other economic resources between individuals, households or groups within a particular population.
ERP (Economic Reform Programme) is the most important strategic document in the economic dialogue with the European Commission and the EU Member States. The objective of this document is to prepare the Republic of Serbia, as a candidate country for the accession to the EU, for participation in the process of economic and fiscal supervision of EU Member States. The Republic of Serbia prepares the Economic Reform Programme annually to ensure sustainable and inclusive economic growth, in line with the strategic objective of reducing the development gap between the domestic and EU economies.
ESRP (Employment and Social Reform Programme) is a joint document of the national Government and the European Commission. The ESRP is envisaged as a strategic process that will accompany the process of European integration as the key mechanism for dialogue on the priorities in the areas of social policy and employment, and it is modelled after the Europe 2020 strategy, already applied by the Member States. The ESRP is focused on a limited number of key priorities in the field of employment, education, health, social and child protection.
Europe 2020 is a socio-economic development strategy of the EU. It consists of five key targets that should be achieved with the help of seven political initiatives. Along with the short-term priority of exiting the economic and financial crisis, the Europe 2020 strategy focuses on the three mutually reinforcing priorities: smart growth, sustainable growth, and inclusive growth.
European Pillar of Social Rights is an initiative of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. The European Pillar of Social Rights aims to strengthen the EU acquis in the area of social protection, in order to contribute to the advancement of the social protection system as the driving force of a social Europe. The European Pillar of Social Rights is based on 20 principles divided into three categories: equal opportunities and access to the labour market, fair working conditions and social protection and inclusion.
European Semester is a mechanism for coordinating the macroeconomic and fiscal policies of the EU Member States. It was launched together with the Europe 2020 strategy.
European Social Fund (ESF) is a key instrument of the European Union for achieving the strategic objectives of the employment policy.
Extreme Poverty is the poverty that represents a danger to basic biological survival. According to World Bank methodologies, it is defined in practice as income below 1.9 USD per day.
Gini coefficient represents the measure of inequality of distribution (usually consumption or income) among the population, where the value 0 represents perfect equality, and 1 perfect inequality. For more information on inequality in the Republic of Serbia see: http://socijalnoukljucivanje.gov.rs/en/social-inclusion-in-rs/data/inequality/
Inactivity Rate represents the percentage of the inactive population in the total working-age population.
Inclusive Growth in the EU implies greater participation of citizens in the labour market, the fight against poverty, and social cohesion. It is one of the priorities of the Europe 2020 strategy, and it includes several segments: raising the employment rate in Europe – a higher quality and more jobs, especially for women, young people and the elderly; supporting all age groups to adapt to change by investing in training; modernization of the labour market and social protection systems; creating conditions which will enable the benefits of development to reach all parts of the EU. Source: EU Glossary, the Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Serbia
Indicator is an expression of a characteristic of a particular occurrence, which should precisely, uniformly and reliably show the characteristic of the occurrence in the given aspect.
IPA (Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance) is the financial instrument of the EU for providing pre-accession assistance. The EU pre-accession assistance programmes are funds available to candidate countries during accession, and they form a key part of the EU enlargement strategy. Pre-accession assistance supports the implementation of the political and economic reforms necessary for meeting the criteria for EU membership, in particular for harmonising the legislation of the candidate country with EU legislation, as well as for institution building and training in the acquisition of rights and obligations arising from EU membership. Source: EU Glossary, the Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Serbia
Laeken Indicators represent the instrument for the standardised measurement of social inclusion at the EU level. The basic set of common Leaken indicators is open for re-examination and improvement, while the data on social inclusion are collected using the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) survey standardised for all EU members.
Lifelong learning is a concept that refers to the acquisition of knowledge, competencies and skills throughout life, regardless of the conditions in which learning takes place, the method or the intention. Lifelong learning is often wrongly identified as adult education.
Living Standard represents the degree of satisfaction of certain needs or living conditions, such as income, housing, clothing, nutrition, etc. whereas the way the needs are met represents the lifestyle.
Material Deprivation is the inability of individuals or households to satisfy the needs and obtain the goods considered typical in their society. For more information on the material deprivation in the Republic of Serbia see: http://socijalnoukljucivanje.gov.rs/en/social-inclusion-in-rs/data/material-deprivation/
Median Income is the income that is precisely in the middle of the distribution of all income in a society, where one half of the society has income above that amount and the other half below that amount.
Open Method of Coordination (OMC), established at the level of the EU, is the main mechanism for achieving higher efficiency based on combining common goals of social policies developed by Member States, national action plans and common indicators, with the aim to promote a more efficient strategic policy of social inclusion of Member States. Open Method of Coordination is a voluntary process of political cooperation, and it involves a joint process of planning, monitoring, comparing and adjusting national policies towards the common goals of EU members.
Political Exclusion is the exclusion from the process of selecting representatives for political decision-making in a community, exclusion from political decision-making and the inability to influence political decisions in any way (directly through participation in decision-making bodies, or indirectly through elections).
Prejudices represent unfounded beliefs and attitudes, causing individuals or groups to be valued positively or negatively, most frequently based on stereotypes.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is an artificial unit, formed so that the same quantity of goods and services in different countries can be purchased for one unit of this imaginary currency.
Relative Deprivation represents reduced chances for individuals, households or social groups (as compared to others in the same society) of being included in quality services, resources, or development processes of their society.
Relative Poverty is the minimum acceptable living standard in society. It is not expressed through an absolute financial amount (like absolute poverty) but as a percentage of the median income or median consumption. For more information on relative poverty in the Republic of Serbia see: http://socijalnoukljucivanje.gov.rs/en/social-inclusion-in-rs/data/relative-poverty/
Smart Growth in the EU implies the development of an economy based on knowledge and innovation (scientific and technological research and development, innovation, education and digital society). Source: EU Glossary, the Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Serbia
Social Cohesion implies the ability of a society to ensure the welfare of its members, to minimise inequalities and avoid disparities. No society is fully cohesive – this is rather an ideal that every society should strive to by maintaining, enhancing and adapting to the changes occurring in economic, social and political segments.
Social dialogue refers to all types of negotiations and consultations between representatives of governments, employers and employees with regard to issues of common interest relating to economic and social policy.
Social entrepreneurship implies doing business with the idea that investing profits, made by selling a product or service, should fulfil a clear social mission. That means that earned funds do not serve to increase profits of an individual, but rather they should be invested for other purposes such as employing people who have a harder time finding work, social and medical services, education, environmental protection, cultural activities in the communities, etc. Social entrepreneurship deals with identifying and addressing social issues such as exclusion, poverty, unemployment and others by using innovative methods and strategies. In Europe, this form of business is known as social economy, whereas in Serbia, it is known as social entrepreneurship. Taken from: http://socijalnopreduzetnistvo.net/eng/socijalno-preduzetnistvo/
Social Exclusion is the state in which individuals or groups are excluded from the economic, political, cultural or social systems, thereby being unable to participate fully in the social relationships and flows, due to their poverty or lack of basic knowledge and opportunities for lifelong learning, or as a result of discrimination. Such occurrences distance individuals or groups from employment opportunities, income and educational opportunities, as well as from inclusion and participation in social networks and community activities. Excluded individuals and groups have insufficient or inadequate access to institutions, authorities and decision-making processes.
Social Inclusion is the process which enables those at risk of poverty and social exclusion to receive the opportunities and funds required for full participation in the economic, social and cultural life and for achieving a living standard and wellbeing considered normal in their society. Social inclusion ensures greater citizen participation in decision making, thus impacting their lives and securing basic rights.
Social Inequalities represent inequalities in the social standing of individuals, households and groups stemming from unequal levels of income and other economic resources, social power and social reputation.
Social Risks are factors increasing the chances of individuals and families to arrive at a state of poverty or be socially excluded (such as outdated qualifications, sickness, disability, unemployment, etc.)
Structural Poverty is mostly long-term poverty caused by structural factors such as economic growth, the structure of the economy, available jobs, adequacy and availability of education, etc.
Subjective Poverty is the feeling of deprivation people experience comparing themselves to others and comparing their income to what they consider to be the minimum for an acceptable standard of living, i.e. the respondents’ assessment of the ability of the household they live in to “make ends meet“.
Sustainable Growth in the EU implies focusing on the development, which is based on the competitiveness of the economy and the production, which is more resource-efficient. Source: EU Glossary, the Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Serbia
Vulnerable Groups are groups excluded from individual or multiple aspects of social life, living in poverty conditions or exposed to risks of being excluded and ending up in a state of poverty.